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Gaited Morgans History/Origins of Gait
by Bruce Burton

Written for Gaited Morgans Association - May 13, 2010

Not to be reproduced without authority of Author

The history behind gait in the Morgan goes back to the 17th century with the first Irish Hobbys, Scottish Galloways and English Palfreys, all pacing horses of basically the same breed, imported into New England. Beginning in 1625, these horses arrived yearly and along with these pacers, some Dutch horses arrived in 1630. According to John Winthrop, these Dutch horses came from Tessell (Texel). This is the region where Friesians were bred and have remained quite unchanged. These pacing and Dutch horses formed the basis of a new breed known as the 'Narragansett Pacer' in Rhode Island and the surrounding area. These same horses were also brought to Springfield, Massachusetts beginning in 1636 with the Pynchon Party. Eight years later, in 1644, Miles Morgan and his wife Prudence brought one of these horses to Springfield when they were led there by a Narragansett Indian guide. So, pacers like the 'Narragansett Pacer' were not just bred in Rhode Island, but all over New England, as that is all there was. The Morgan family continued to breed and own these horses as Nathaniel Morgan, Miles' son, bought one of these gaited horses from Captain John Pynchon in 1697. So when Nathaniel's son Isaac gave several mares to Justin Morgan in 1773, they could be nothing else but gaited horses, related to 'Narragansett Pacers'.

Simply put, when Justin Morgan started breeding horses it was from this stock. Figure, the foundation horse for the Morgan breed, which later was named after his breeder Justin Morgan, would have had pacing blood through his dam line. It came from Diamond's granddam, Sportsman's dam, and Justin Morgan's foundation mares, which were of pacing blood and/or 'Narragansett Pacers'.

Figure was foaled in 1789 and sired by a stallion named 'Beautiful Bay' or 'True Briton' that Justin and his cousin, John Morgan, advertised in 1785-1790. This stallion had been bred and owned in New York by the De Lancey family before it came to New England. The history of this stallion can be found in a letter from Edward De Lancey, written in 1889, the grand nephew of Captain James De Lancey, Bowery Lower Manhattan, New York City, the breeder of 'Beautiful Bay' aka 'True Briton'. Captain James De Lancey advertised this stallion under the name 'Hip' as a three year-old in 1773. This advertisement states that Hip's sire was Wildair and his dam was by Babraham. From the breeding records of James De Lancey, we learn that this mare was his racing mare Leeds, Betsy Leeds and Betty Leeds, as she is referred to by all three names. In Edward De Lancey's letter to Joseph Battell, Edward states that Capt. James De Lancey gave 'True Briton' (the name used by Joseph Battell, who was unaware of Hip) to his uncle Oliver De Lancey in 1773. In 1777, Oliver in turn gave Hip aka 'True Briton' to his nephew Colonel James De Lancey (cousin of Capt. James De Lancey) when his estate on East River was burned in 1777 during the Revolutionary War. Col. James De Lancey then rode Hip, aka 'True Briton', on his famous raids with his 'Cowboys'. Col. James De Lancey raided the farms of Patriots until 1780 when Hip, aka 'True Briton', was stolen from him. Edward and the 'Connecticut Courant' October 19, 1780 relate about the theft. Col. James De Lancey's horse was stolen while he was at his parents estate in the Bronx (now part of the Bronx Zoo and Botanical Gardens). The newspaper adds that it was Weight Carpenter, one of the Patriots whose cattle had been stolen by the Colonel and his Cowboys, that took De Lancey's famous stallion. Carpenter (called Smith in some stories) rode Hip to Connecticut, where he was sold to Thomas Chapman, Salisbury, CT. Thomas Chapman advertised 'Hip' under the name 'Liberty' in the 'Connecticut Courant' 1781-1783. Chapman sold Hip aka 'Liberty' to Miles Powell, Lanesburough, MA, who called Hip 'Beautiful Bay' instead. In 1785, Powell sold 'Hip' aka 'Beautiful Bay' to Justin and John Morgan, who advertised Hip as both 'Beautiful Bay' and 'True Briton'. How did we know Hip is Figure's sire and the same stallion that was owned by the De Lancey family?

We know that 'Hip' aka 'Liberty' aka 'Beautiful Bay' was the same horse that was the sire of Figure because of the 1795 advertisement of Justin Morgan and Samuel Allen in the 'Rutland Herald', May 1795. Justin's ad said, “Figure sprang from a curious horse owned by Col. De Lancey”. In the 1796, they add this about Figure, “He is a beautiful bay - Fifteen hands three inches high - and Grand Son of to the famous imported Horse, WILD-AIR”, to the advertisement in the 'Burlington Mercury', April 24, 1796. This means that all other stories, though seeming to contain correct history, are just 'Fairy Tales'. Figure's sire was 'Hip' aka 'Liberty' aka 'Beautiful Bay' aka 'True Briton' by Wildair. Additionally, in the 'Albany Cultivator' July 1842, page 110, John Morgan's letter states he owned 'True Briton' in 1788, when Justin Morgan's mares were bred.

Figure's dam was bred by Justin Morgan and had some crosses to pacing blood. Her sire was Diamond, possibly bred by Samuel Burt, who owned Diamond's dam. Diamond was by Young Wildair, then owned by Moses Church, Springfield, MA. Moses Church bought Young Wildair from John McCurdy, Lyme, CT and McCurdy bought him from John Leary of NYC in 1772, who then owned him and advertised him. John Leary had bought Young Wildair from Phillip Kissick of NYC, who advertised him for sale in 1770 stating he would be two years old August 7th and that his dam was by Dawson's Telemachus and out of a Dutch mare. Diamond's dam was owned by Samuel Burt, Springfield, MA, was bred by John McCurdy and sold to Samuel Burt before 1775, which is stated on John McCurdy's stud bill for Young Wildair, in 1775. This mare by Young Wildair would have been from a 'Narragansett Pacer' or of pacing blood. Thus, Diamond by Young Wildair (Church's Wildair), through his dam by Young Wildair (Church's Wildair) got pacing blood from his grand dam, a 'Narragansett Pacer' or of pacing blood.

Figure's second dam was also bred Justin Morgan and had more crosses to pacing blood. Her sire was Sportsman by Ranger also known as Lindsay's Arabian. Sportsman's dam was a 'Narragansett Pacer'.

Figure's third dam was given to Justin by his father Isaac in 1773, and was one of several mares he received that year. These mares also were 'Narragansett Pacers' and/or of pacing stock, that had also been bred in Springfield, MA since 1636, and continued in 1644, when Mile Morgan started the Legacy. It continued with Nathaniel in 1697 and continued to Isaac, who gave mares to Justin Morgan in 1773, culminating with Figure, the Morgan horse, in 1789. So, Figure, himself was 25% or ¼ pacing blood and bred to mares of pacing blood sired pacers.

Without going into detail and listing every gaited Morgan that existed before 1900 and how our gaited Morgans received gait, I will explain how this pacing blood continued to express itself within some Morgans. I should add here that there are two factors which seem to detract or dilute the expression of gait. These are factors are crosses to Thoroughbred and Old Canadian, both did not pace and are known to have produced pacers.

Gaited Morgans we now enjoy are to some extent a mixture of Morgan, Saddlebred and Standardbred. The gaited Morgans, of today basically trace to these early 20th century breeders: Richard Sellman, Joel Jackson, David Dickie, Charles Larrabee, Abner Cross, Elmer Brown, Dick Skinner, Joseph Brunk and the United States Government. The breeding of David Dickie and the Government appears to have contributed the most, with the others having pacing stock and producing some gaited Morgans that contribute to gaited Morgans of today.

The Morgan, which continued to be bred in New England with 'Narragansett' and pacing blood that was left, really absorbed what was left of the 'Narragansett' to become a new breed. The Morgan was crossed with Thoroughbred to produce Standardbreds and Saddlebreds. These two breeds and Morgans have continued to coexist and be mixed together until their registries closed. From these, the Tennessee Walker and Missouri Fox Trotter were formed. Also during this time most of the other, if not all other, American Gaited Breeds were formed with Morgan contributing to the formation of each. Morgans with known gaited lines also went to Maryland, Virginia, North & South Carolina and Georgia before and after the Civil War. Morgans also went to Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Cuba, Nicaragua, Argentina, Peru and Brazil before 1930. In fact, if your horses trace to the Quarter Horse, Paint, Appaloosa, Pinto, Standardbred, Saddlebred, Tennessee Walker, Missouri Fox Trotter, Kentucky Mountain, Rocky Mountain, Spotted Saddle Horse, Virginia Highlander, Racking Horse, American Walking Pony, Curlys, North American Single Footing Horse, Paso Fino and Peruvian Paso it could have some Morgan back in its history before a registry began for these breeds. Morgans were in all states except Florida before the Civil War and in Florida, Puerto Rico and Cuba before 1900. So to find horses bred in North and South America that have some Morgan that was there before 1900 is possible. Why has this historical information remain unknown for so long? Simply put, after Daniel Linsley's book was printed in 1857, people thought there was nothing else that could be learned, end of story. Actually much of what Linsley wrote was only loosely based upon the real facts.

To summarize how Figure's sons and daughters began this legacy, there is still much we do not know. By examining the Morgan Horse Register we find that there are nearly ninety sons and daughters of Figure that bred on. Of these, only 55 left lines that are in Morgans today. We also know that Figure sired over thirty foals in 1792 from Samuel Whitman's stud book. We also know that Samuel Allen paid Justin Morgan with 40 acres in Moreland, worth $200 for the 1796 season, this would mean Figure was bred to about 40 mares that year based upon the amout charged for breeding, with Allen paying Justin Morgan ½ the stud fees. From these two years, we know Figure sired 70 foals in just those two years. What could Figure have sired in the other 25 years he was at stud?

This is a far cry from the three sons, Bulrush, Sherman and Woodbury, that we are told trace to our Morgans. However the 55 we know of that bred on is less than 10% of the foals Figure did sire that cannot be traced. It is probable that some of these Morgans entered into the Saddlebred and Standardbred before their registries began. In fact, 33 of the first 100 and 28 of the second 100 registered Standardbreds were also registered as Morgans. Many more Morgans that were foaled before that registry began were also registered as Standardbreds until 1900. A list of all gaited Morgans throughout the last 200 years, and how their lines entered into Morgans and other Gaited Breeds, could fill volumes. What do we know about how and when gaited Morgans went South?

Morgans that went South before 1835 and figure prominently in Gaited American Horses

Tom Hal the pacer, though registered as a Morgan and called 'Canadian', came from Maryland and was advertised that way in Kentucky. Tom Hal's sire was General Ridgley's pacing Tom, who was foaled about 1800, it is possible he was a 'Narragansett'. Tom Hal, as advertised in the 'Kentucky Reporter' on April 16 and May 23, 1823, was by Old Tom and from Maryland. Tom Hal's younger brother, Young Tom, also by Ridgley's Tom, was advertised in the 'American Farmer', Maryland, April 19, 1822. This horse later sired Tom Telegraph in Morgan, Saddlebred and Standardbred horses.

However there are three stallions that were bred in Canada that found their way South. Were they the first Morgans that are known to have been used for breeding in the South? They figure prominently in Gaited Horses today. They are Copperbottom, Pilot and Davy Crockett, although their breeding is thought to be unknown. They are registered as Morgans and their history and breeding is known.

Copperbottom #66, sorrel or sorrel roan, 15-2h, foaled 1806-1809, was bred by David Blunt, Danville, Vermont, who moved to Bolton QC, 1809, with this colt by Justin Morgan or a mare in foal to Justin Morgan that produced Copperbottom. Since Copperbottom was so predominant to sire pacers, this mare was probably of pacing blood. Col Perrin brought him to Kentucky by way of Detroit, MI and sold him to Capt. Jowett, Clark CTY, KY, in 1816. Jowett advertised Copperbottom in the 'Kentucky Reporter', June 10, 1816, and stated he was from Bolton, QC. Old Copperbottom was at least 50% Morgan blood.

Pilot #104, foaled 1823, black, 14-3h or 15h, was bred by Louis Dansareau, Vercheres, QC (his dam same as his sire's dam). Sire: Pappilion #103, brown, 15h (sold to Mr Vassar, Detroit, 1830, his dam Jeanne de Arc by Voyaguer by Justin Morgan). Pappilion's sire was Carilion, owned by Jean Baptise Duhamel, by Gravelin Horse #409, sorrel roan, foaled about 1812. Vital Dupres brought the Gravelin Horse #409 from an American. Dupres sold him to Gascon LaRocque and he to Joseph Gravelin, St. Ours, QC, whose daughter gave this information. Pilot's dam, Jeanne d' Arc (also dam of Pappilion), was by Voyaguer, owned by Pierre Fiset, who called her 'Dutch' and bought her from an American and by Justin Morgan. Pilot's 2nd dam was a pacing mare brought from Vermont in 1825 and sold to Louis Dansareau in Montreal, QC. Dansareau sold Pilot to Elias Rockwell and John Dean, Stafford, CT in 1830. Rockwell brought him to New Orleans and sold him to Major Dubois, New Orleans, LA, in 1831, where he was cared for by Mr. Forman. In 1834, he was sold to Mr. Heinshon, Louisville, KY, where he was cared for by CW Kennedy until 1850. During 1836, he leased to Col. Nimrod Lindsay, North Middletown, KY and was cared for by James Rogers. In 1850, Pilot was sold to Robert Bell, Henderson, KY, in whose care he died in 1853. Pilot was at least 25% Morgan blood.

Davy Crockett #603 (in Kentucky), also called Young Hawkins #546 (in Canada), the same horse but registered twice because all the facts were not fully known at that time. He was foaled 1828, brown, 14-3h or 15h, bred by David Frost, Shefford, QC. Sire: Hawkins Horse #4 by Justin Morgan. Dam: Frost Mare, owned by David Frost, Shefford, QC, breeding unknown. The Hawkins Horse was bred by Mr. Melvin, St. Johnsbury, VT, who sold him to the Johnson brothers in Stanstead, QC, who in turn sold him to to David Frost, Shefford, QC. Young Hawkins #546 was sold to John Daley, whose full name was John Dailey de Anglei. John Daley moved to Detroit, MI in 1832 and sold Young Hawkins to Col. Elijah Brush, Attorney General, Michigan. Brush sold Young Hawkins to Dr. Luke Blackburn, Georgetown, KY in 1837, who called him Davy Crockett #603. Davy Crockett was at least 25% known Morgan blood.

Three more Morgans, bred in New England, are also known to have sired gaited horses and went South before 1855.

Woodbury #7, foaled, 1816, dark chestnut, 14-3h, #1040, bred by Lyman Wight, Tunbridge, VT. Woodbury was sired by Justin Morgan and his dam was a pacing mare owned by Major John Moulton. While in Vermont he sired pacers and horses that sired pacers. In 1836, he was sold to Norman Baglee, Gainsville, AL and came there by way of New Orleans. Woodbury died two years later in 1838 from an accident while being taken off the ship. No record of his foals are known, but since he stood the 1837 season, foals are possible. He was 50% Morgan

Well's Yellow Jacket, registered as Knowlton's Morgan Tiger #217, foaled 1847, yellow bay (buckskin), 15h, bred by Chester Pike, Cornish, NH. His sire was Bulrush #6, by Justin Morgan, and his dam was by Pike's Morgan #425, who sired Fanning's Vermont Boy #1823, who sired Bullet #2108, who is in many TWH (Tennessee Walker Horse) pedigrees, and also sired Bullet's dam Stella. Pike's Morgan was by Gifford #30 by Woodbury #7, Gifford's dam and grandam were also by Justin Morgan. The dam of Pike's Morgan was by Green Mountain #42, by Gifford and out of a mare by Woodbury #7. The granddam of Pike's Morgan was a Narragansett Pacing mare. Knowlton's Morgan Tiger went to Ohio in 1852 and was sold to Dr. George Wells, who brought him to Mayslick, KY. It was in Kentucky that he was acquired the name Yellow Jacket. Morgan Tiger was at least 34% Morgan.

Butler's Eureka #449, foaled 1851, dark chestnut, 15h, #1000, bred by Asa Tinkham, Windsor County, VT. His sire was Green Mountain #42, and his dam was by Gifford #30, 2nd dam by Cock of the Rock #10, by Sherman #5, by Justin Morgan and out of a mare by Justin Morgan. He was sold to Dr. Russ Butler, Woodford County, KY. While he was at Dr. Gagle's in New Liberty, KY, he was struck by lightning and killed. Through two sons, his blood is very common in Saddlebred pedigrees. Eureka was at least 47% Morgan. His great grandson, Coleman's Eureka #451 & ASHA 323,8 is basically the only link to him. His sire was Young's Morgan #450, by Cox's Eureka #453, by Butler's Eureka #449. The dam of Young's Morgan is unknown except that she received a premium at the Lexington Fair. The dam of Cox's Eureka was by TB Pioneer, by TB Blackburn's Whip, 2nd dam by imported TB Birmingham. The dam of Coleman's Eureka was corrected in volume three of the MHR, page 687. She was by Dorsey's Green Mountain Black Hawk, aka Dorsey's Sorrel Tom #995. His sire was Sherman Black Hawk #51 ATR 14,2 by Black Hawk # 20 ATR 5, by Sherman #5, by Justin Morgan. The dam of Dorsey's Tom was by Gifford #30, and his 2nd dam by Sherman #5. The dam of Sherman Black Hawk was by Smith's Liberty, by Doolittle's King William, whose dam Fancy was by Justin Morgan. The 2nd dam of Sherman Black Hawk was by Woodbury #7. The 2nd dam of Coleman's Eureka was by Bartlett's Boston by TB Boston. Coleman's Eureka was at least 14.5% Morgan blood.

There is one more source of gait that is claimed has no Morgan, but these are the facts and you decide. Though it is claimed he has no Morgan, there is no substantial proof otherwise. This horse is Cockspur, who sired the dam of ASHA Gaines Denmark, according to “Famous Saddle Horses” by Suzanne, page 20. Suzanne says, “...recently available to the writer, there were uncovered two letters, published in periodicals in 1911,...” These letters came from William Daugherty, Graham, MO and from an account of Martian Johnson, who died in 1873. “Johnson said that Cock Robin sired Cockspur, and that Cockspur's dam was by Hotspur by Timoleon, whose dam was by Sir Archy. His second dam, roan in color, and a fast racker.” This story was written by William Daugherty Jr. but lacks many important detail that would lend credence to this story. What city did all this breeding take place in Virginia? Why did the Daugherty family wait so long to tell this history, 1911? Doesn't it seem odd that John Wallace, in his American Trotting Register, didn't find anything about Cockspur after 1871, even though he lists Gaines Denmark in it? When people make up a story the most important proof is always missing, where the horse was bred, who owned the sire and dam and in this case how did Martian Johnson get the horse in 1840, if he really ever owned the horse? Another interesting statement made by Daugherty was that Cockspur supposedly went to New Orleans in 1842, and mysteriously a Kentuckian found him and brought him up the Cumberland River to Nashville, TN, where he went over land to Bowling Green, KY. Yet it was not Bowling Green, the son of Cockspur, came to Graham, Missouri. Judge Stevenson, who bred the dam of Gaines Denmark, lived near Lexington, KY, 150 miles northeast of Bowling Green, KY. Wallace's American Trotting Register, volume 3 page 164, says this under Gaines Denmark, Cockspur sired dam and bred by Judge John Stevenson, Fayette County KY. Martian Johnson did bring a horse to Kentucky about 1850, Toronto from Canada.

The second letter, which traces actual people and where they lived, was from Chenault Todd, Fayette, Missouri. It states that Mr. Grey bred a son of Cockspur that went to MO about 1850, and came from near Lexington, KY. Todd states, “I had some of the blood of the Kentucky Cockspur that stood in Howard County (Missouri), in one branch of my horses and I am anxious to learn, if possible, something of his breeding and was told by Mr. Grey that he bred this Cockspur that was brought from near Lexington, KY.” Interestingly, Lugerean Gray (spelled with an “a” instead of “e”), Graybolt, KY, bred Pilot Jr. #616 ATR 12 foaled in 1844. Pilot Jr was foaled on the property of John T. Gray, Graybolt, KY, just 36 miles from Louisville, KY and 80 miles from Lexington, KY. Grey or Gray states a son of Cockspur was NEAR Lexington, KY. Pilot Jr., became famous only after he was purchased by R.A. Alexander, Spring Station, KY, just 15 miles from Lexington, KY. Did Lugerean or John Gray (Grey) breed another son of Pilot that they named Cockspur? Given the time of foaling, 1837, based only upon Johnson's statement when he was about 70 years old, place of first origin, New Orleans (Johnson offered no proof that the horse from New Orleans was the one he stated he had) and color, black. Given all that is known about Pilot, Pilot was in New Orleans from 1830 to 1834, he was black, from Canada and gaited. Pilot is known to have sired at least one son in New Orleans, Ole Bull #651. In Kentucky, of his sons were: Tom Crowder #618, Bull Pup #626, Sam Slick #3154, General Taylor #2527, Parish's Pilot #617, Pilot Jr. #616 and two that are not registered, Little John aka Black John and Merrimac. Interestingly, all were black or brown, but two, one bay and one gray Pilot Jr., from a gray mare. So we might ask this of the dams of Gaines Denmark, his son Washington's Denmark and the grand dam of Prospect # 122. Whose your Daddy? My money is on a son of Pilot named Cockspur.

There are dozens of other gaited Morgans that went South mainly to Kentucky and Tennessee. And it is impossible to describe how just Copperbottom, Pilot and Davy Crockett influenced gaited horses today, let alone all the rest. These pedigrees of Allan TWH F-1 ATR 7623 & Earheart's Brooks TWH F-25 show the affect the Morgan has on just the Tennessee Walking Horse and how the Saddlebred and Standardbred were influenced as well. Both pedigrees are based upon years of research and documentation that some did not know even existed.

Allan TWH F-1, Sire: Allandorf ATR 7462, Dam: Maggie Marshall by Bradford's Telegraph #1249, by Black Hawk # 20 ATR 5, by Sherman #5, by Justin Morgan # 1. His sire line is Standardbred, but how he inherited a pacing gait is interesting. Allandorf ATR 7462, Sire: Onward ATR 1141, Dam: Alma Mator. Onward ATR 1141, Sire: George Wilkes ATR 519, Dam: Dolly White. George Wilkes ATR 519, Sire: Hambletonian ATR 10, Dam: Dolly Spanker. Alma Mator, Sire: Mambrino Patchen ATR 58, Dam: TB Estella. Mambrino Patchen ATR 58, Sire: ASHA Gaines Denmark # 61 (Note: I state Gaines Denmark instead of ATR Mambrino Chief, this is based upon many letters and articles), Dam: Rodes Mare by TB Gano, 2nd dam by Sir William Jr, 3rd dam pacer (Middleton, KY probably by Pilot). Dolly White, Sire: Mambrino Chief ATR 11, Dam: Fanny, Sire: Ben Franklin by Hazrack 6317, Dam: Nance by TB Saxe Weimar. Ben Franklin, Sire: Hazrack # 6317, Dam: Mare by Copperbottom # 66 by Justin Morgan #1. Hazrack # 6317, Sire: TB Golden Farmer, Dam: Offut Mare by Copperbottom # 66, by Justin Morgan # 1. Dolly Spanker, Sire: Henry Clay # 53 ATR 8, Dam: Telegraph. Henry Clay # 53 ATR 8, Sire: Andrew Jackson ATR 4, Dam: Lady Surrey, by Revenge # 8, by Justin Morgan # 1. Telegraph, Sire: Baker's Highlander # 753, Dam: Phippis Mare, breeding unknown. Bakers Highlander # 753, Sire: Paul's Highlander # 574, Dam: Humphrey Mare, by Young Lyon, by Defiance # 586, by Revenge # 8, by Justin Morgan # 1. Paul's Highlander # 574, Sire: Kellogg's Highlander # 37, by Justin Morgan # 1, Dam: Kellogg Mare, by Bold Briton, by Justin Morgan # 1. He had seven known crosses to Justin Morgan and carried 4.5 % Morgan blood. Where does his gait come from? These are the horses five generations back.

ATR Hambletonian 10 - No gait
Doll Spanker with four crosses to Justin Morgan - Yes gaited
ATR Mambrino Chief 11 - No gait
Fanny, by Ben Franklin, by Hazrack 6317 - Yes gaited
ASHA Gaines Denmark 61 - Yes gaited (sire of ATR Mambrino Patchen from numerous letters)
Levi Rodes Mare - Yes gaited (dam of ATR Mambrino Patchen 58)
TB Australian - No gait
TB Fanny G - No gait
Sherman 5 - Yes gait, Mr Kidder said he could rack fast
Sire of Nathan Hardy Mare (dam of Telegragh, sire of ATR Onward's dam) - unknown
Dam of Nathan Hardy Mare - unknown
Four grand parents of Truman Pollock Mare - unknown

Five of 10 known have gait


Earnheart's Brooks TWH F-25, Sire: Said to be by a horse called Driver in Alabama that was taken by the Army. This was a Morgan, Driver # 2329, foaled 1856, bred by Elias Dorsey, Jefferson County, KY, who sold to Arthur Barton, Franklin County, AL in1860. He was taken from Barton by Northern Troops. Driver's Sire: Dorsey's Vermont #69, Dam: Big Archy, by Young American Eclipse. Dorsey's Vermont # 69, by Barnard Morgan # 68, by Gifford # 30, by Woodbury # 7, by Justin Morgan. I am not sure of the dam of Earnheart's Brooks, as I have seen it several ways. Dam by Edmonson's Pilot (same as Stone's Clipper), by Parker's Brown Pilot # 2766, by Fenwick's Copperbottom # 90, by Brutus #79 (same as Scott County Copperbottom ASHR 1601), by Copperbottom # 66, by Justin Morgan. Dam of Edmonson's Pilot was also by Parker's Brown Pilot # 2766. If this information is correct, he has seven crosses to Justin Morgan and carries 9% Morgan blood.

Where did his gait come from?

Gifford #30 - yes gait
Alvah Newton mare by Bonaparte # 545 - probably no
Sherman #5 - yes gait
Knight Mare - unknown
TB American Eclipse - no gait
TB dam of Young Eclipse - no gait
TB Sir Archy - no gait
TB grand dam of mare Big Archy - no gait
Fenwick's Copperbottom #90 - yes gait
Micheal Parker mare by TB Cherokee - no gait
Parker's Brown Pilot #2766 - yes gait
next five unknown

Four of 10 known to have gait


The Saddlebred Bourbon King 1788, who had no crosses to Gaines Denmark or Cockspur, was five gaited champion many times. His pedigree shows the Morgan was the source of gait.

ATR Mambrino Chief 11 - no gait
Little Nora - no gait
ATR Joe Downing 710 (three Morgan crosses from sire) - yes gait
TB Eagle - no gait
ATR Alexander's Allahabad (seven crosses to Justin Morgan ) - yes gait
Maurice Hoyt mare (Thoroughbred) - no gait
Morgan Tiger # 217 aka Well's Yellow Jacket - yes gait
Unknown mare - unknown
Clark Chief #2993 ATR 89 - no gait
Lute Boyd - possible gait from sire Joe Downing
Parson's Abdallah - yes gait
Dam of Belle Parsons, by Well's Yellow Jacket aka Morgan Tiger #217 - yes gait
Indian Chief #538 - possible gait
Stone mare by TB Cherokee - no gait
Kentucky Chief #1117 - probably no
Dixie by Solomon's Glencoe - no gait

Five of 16, all Morgan and 2 probable also Morgan


Early history of Government breeding lists one mare which produced mixed gaited foals. This is the dam line of Ellen 0642, which is interesting.

Ellen 0642
Irene 03239 - mixed gaited - Sire: General Gates 666
Upweycleis 04795
Eleanor 0635 - mixed gaited - Sire: General Gates 666
Forester 6918

Full siblings which could be gaited
Calve 0381
Klyona 03313
Dewdrop 0527
Leila 04045
Gay Mac 7988
Walla Walla 04623
Babs 04739

Narrisa 04132 was by Troubadour of Willowmoor 6459 - also possible gait
Arrisa 04669
Captor 7789
Dimity 04820
Fillmore 7928
Winchester 7683
Romance 04355

These are also the lines from two known gaited Morgans on their sixth generation line:

Penrod 6140 - no gait
Daisette 04264 - no gait
Allen King 7019 - no gait
Galva 04250 - no gait
Meade 8628 - traces to Ellen 0642 - possible gait
Gayselba 05514 - traces to Ellen 0642 - possible gait
Highview King 8339 - no gait
Shoshone 05493 - yes gait
Mentor 8627 - yes gait
Naiad 06029 - yes gait
Flying Jubilee 9964 - no gait
Cynthia 07359 - no gait
Flyhawk 7526 - no gait
Sentola 04555 - no gait
Royale____ - yes gait
Embar 09380 - yes gait
Red Vermont 7893 - no gait
Nona 06462 - possible gait
Easter Vermont 9804 - possible through dam Nona 06462
Blossom F 06011 - no gait
Merry Knox 11334 - traces to Ellen 0642 - possible gait
Junestar 07994 - no gait
UC Dark Shadow 18865 - yes gait
Cordon Sabrina 017662 - no gait
Mentor 8627 - yes gait
Naiad 06092 - yes gait
Flying Jubilee 9964 - no gait
Cynthia 07359 - no gait
Mentor 8627 - yes gait
Naiad 06092 - yes gait
Stetson 9039 - no gait
Moon Dust 015107 - yes gait

11 of 32 gaited, plus five more which trace to pacing Morgans (16 of 32)


These are the lines from a mare that is able to rack, though not from known gaited Morgans:

Flyhawk 7226 - no gait
Allans Fancy L 07224 - traces to pacing Morgans - possible gait
Barberry 8089 - yes gaited
Elberty Linsley 04811 - no gait
Flyhawk 7226 - no gait
Felix Lee 9183 - traces to Ellen 0642 - possible gait
Neliza 04973 - no gait
The Brown Falcon 11180 - his dam traces to Morgan pacers
Allans Fancy L 07224 - traces to pacing Morgans - possible gait
Dot S Bell Ann 09093 - no gait
Flyhawk 7526 - no gait
Kamiah 08400 - yes gait
Monte L 8423 - traces to Morgan pacers - possible gait
Lana 05744 - traces to Ellen 0642 - possible gait
Gov Pico 8767 - no gait
Jipsy Allan 05605 - no gait
Flyhawk 7526 - no gait
Sentola 04555 - no gait
Senator Graham 8361 - traces to Ellen 0642 - possible gait
Monty 05499 - yes gait
Funquest Falcon 12358 - traces to Ellen 0642 - possible gait
Ozark Firefly 09716 - yes gait
Skychief 11366 - possible gait
Smoky Penny 010281 - yes gait
Senator Graham 8361 - traces to Ellen 0642 - possible gait
Choquita 08552 - yes gait
Triumph 10167 - yes gait
Oughtchoo 08116 - no gait
Parade 10138 - no gait
Bonanya 07659 - no gait
Squire Burger 8282 - no gait
African Maid 04234 - no gait

Seven of 32 gaited, plus nine which trace to Morgan pacers (16 of 32)


As can be seen above, gait is inherited from previous gaited horses. There are certain lines which are trotters, but can also rack. Most of the gait within the Morgan Breed today is diluted, but shows up occasionally when the right Morgans are bred together. The Morgan's influence in many other gaited horses is a major factor. In fact, there is not a single pacing Standardbred that does not trace more times to Justin Morgan than to ATR Hambletonian 10. The same is true of early Saddlebreds with no crosses to Gaines Denmark, like ASHA Bourbon King 1788. The same can be said for Tennessee Walkers like Midnite Sun #410741, their gait came from Morgan.

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